Iveta Eimontaite, University of Hull 235-258, 10 .7771/1932-6246.1183. The 25–30‐year‐olds outperformed the two youngest age groups on the originality measure of verbal divergent thinking. As one generates more responses, the conflict of choosing between multiple responses would increase accordingly. It usually happens in a free-flowing, spontaneous manner, where multiple creative ideas are engendered and evaluated. Highly creative people exhibited the greatest variation in EEG alpha wave activity across the three tasks. 1 Divergent thinking takes place in a free-flowing manner and is spontaneous, which results in multiple possible solutions in short amount of time. Divergent thinking is cognition that leads in various directions. They also used some other measures, including a test of intelligence and openness. Thus, there is no limit on the possible uses of a tin can, and no limit to the number of ways passengers could be carried. It underpins the creative potential rather than creativity (e.g., Runco & Acar, 2012), which relies on an open-ended mental process aimed at finding different solutions to open problems (e.g., alternative uses for a brick—Kaufman, Plucker, & Baer, 2008). Indeed, much of his thinking on creativity was, and remains, remarkably influential (see Runco 1999d). Divergent thinking is employed when an individual is faced with an open-ended task (examples were given earlier—“How can a brick be used?”). Specifically, whereas low-creativity subjects exhibited low EEG alpha on all three tasks, high-creative subjects exhibited high EEG alpha only during work on the Alternate Uses Test. It’s a straight forward process that focuses on figuring out the most effective answer to a problem. A third possibility involves conflict resolution. Delivery media includes the types of materials that were used to convey material during the course. Findings indicate that both hemispheres are involved in divergent thinking, which is accompanied by both event-related increases and decreases in the neural activation. Recently, Andreas Fink, Aljoscha Neubauer and colleagues have employed the Alternate Uses Test to study brain activity using EEG and fMRI in the same study design. Divergent thinking should be the basis of the generation phase, while convergent thinking should be the basis of the exploration phase. As discussed by several creativity researchers since the development of the divergent thinking construct, creativity can also be thought of as the generation of novel, useful solutions to problems (i.e., problem-solving). That improv causes increases in divergent thinking (Lewis & Lovatt, 2013) helps explain the success of improv in creative fields such as business and entrepreneurship (Lubart, 2016). Given that alpha wave activity is an inverse measure of cortical activity, this finding confirms that creativity is linked to task-related variation in cortical function. In the design world—where we’re constantly employing design thinking in our work—both approaches are necessary and lead to unique solutions … This … Each of these parameters introduces constraints that, in effect, limit the available range of solutions from all possible solutions to a subset of feasible, practical solutions. Table 5.2 lists examples of contrasting kinds of thinking favorable on the one hand for production of variability, on the other of orthodoxy. Little, S.J. In contrast to divergent thinking, convergent thinking involves seeing–recognizing the similarity or the commonality of phenomena that appear to be different or combining and joining two or more different observations or ideas together so that they provide additional information, for example, putting the pieces of a puzzle together so they make a complete picture. Furthermore, divergent thinking/doing is based on ideational fluency, but it also requires qualitative solutions that are mapped onto flexibility and originality. The highest flexibility was observed in the anonymous high transformational group and the lowest was identified in low transformational leadership. JPS Mark A. Runco, in Creativity (Second Edition), 2014. The goal of the course designers was to enhance the fluency, flexibility, originality, and elaboration of trainees’ responses during creative thought. This course was conducted as a lecture along with a discussion of the model presented to trainees. Divergent thinking tests are also used in numerous educational programs and in various organizational training packages. Abstract: Divergent thinking (DT) is an important constituent of creativity that captures aspects of fluency and originality. Continual growth of categorical knowledge by restructuring concepts is a creative phenomenon (Ward, Smith, & Vaid, 1997). Recent research has used neuroscientific methods to study originality, novelty, insight, divergent thinking, and other processes related to creative mental activity. IQ tests typically assume that there is one general intelligence (or g) that underlies every intelligent act—every single one. Keeping headphones from getting tangled up 7. It is a spontaneous, fluid, non-linear mental approach based on curiosity and nonconformity. Developed by J.P. Guilford in 1967, the Alternative Uses Test stretches your creativity by giving you two minutes to think of as many uses as possible for an everyday object like a chair, coffee mug, or brick. Studies show that if you get a full night’s sleep, you will be twice as likely to solve a problem than if you stay up all night. Divergent thinking is more than thinking outside the box; it’s thinking without the box, and imposing structure later. On divergent thinking in the visuo-spatial domain, however, only 15/16-year-olds … While both insight and divergent thinking tasks are used to study creativity, there are reasons to believe that the two may call upon very different mechanisms. Here are sample items from Binet and Simon’s (1905) first test of intelligence. Although I will deal with some other specific features of convergent thinking later in this chapter, I want to discuss some other kinds of thinking that are associated with the generation of variability and novelty. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scientific theory, a musical composition, or a joke) or a physical object (such as an invention, a printed literary work, or a painting).. Divergent thinking, also referred to as lateral thinking, is the process of creating multiple, unique ideas or solutions related to a problem that you are trying to solve. Algorithm-Methodical and logical procedure that guarantees solving a problem-Ex: proof in geometry. These six stages include mess finding, problem finding, information finding, idea finding, solution finding, and acceptance finding. Also called: ‘Thinking … Divergent and convergent thinking are two complementary methods to explore ideas, work towards goals, and address challenges. These three tasks vary in the extent to which performance is a function of reliance on divergent versus convergent processes: whereas the Alternate Uses Test is generally perceived to be a relatively ‘pure’ measure of divergent processes, the Remote Associates Test is considered to depend both on divergent and convergent processes, and intelligence tests are perceived to depend primarily on convergent processes. Whereas some match problems can be solved by a sequence of generate-evaluate cycles, others involve start states that create strong mental sets that implicitly obstruct certain transformations. Marginal characteristics of a concept or object that are not central to its usual definition are emphasized and brought into juxtaposition with similar characteristics of other concepts and objects to yield unexpected associations. Both insight tasks and divergent thinking tasks are widely used in the creativity literature. Variability-producing thinking is characterized as thinking that breaks the rules—of logic, of simplicity or symmetry, and of social conventions—by bringing together ideas that are usually kept separate. Accessibility Statement. Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. Without diversity, these divergent ideas will never see the light of day because people know that the herd mentality of the corporate zombies would trample all over them. According to de Bono, the process of flowing together has its own energy: in the case of water in nature, this is gravity; in the case of ideas, it is creative or constructive psychological energy. So now that you know about three different types of creativity, insight, convergent thinking, and divergent thinking, you might think that the brain processes must be complicated. Widely used test to use convergent reasoning is the Purdue creative thinking with. 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